Bilateral trade agreements may arise from and enhance shared cultural norms across countries. Greater cultural understanding or similarities may be revealed through a number of avenues. We investigate one particular avenue: the judging of gymnastic performances. Using execution and difficulty scores from the 2009 World Gymnastics Championships, we find that gymnasts realize a greater return in terms of execution score for each bump in difficulty when the home countries of the judge and the athlete share a bilateral trade agreement.
Callahan, Brian P.; Mulholland, Sean E.; and Rotthoff, Kurt W.
"Cultural Bias: Gymnasts, Judges, and Bilateral Trade Agreements,"
The Journal of SPORT: Vol. 5
, Article 3.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.kent.edu/sport/vol5/iss1/3