The relationship between stadium size & location and spectator characteristics: implications for marketing strategies.

Publication Title

International Sports Journal

Publication Date


Document Type



Sport management, soccer, stadiums, sports marketing, Japan


Business | Sports Management


The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between spectator characteristics and the size and location of the stadium. Data was collected by a self-administrated questionnaire during Japanese Professional Soccer League (J. League) games at four different stadiums in 1998. Using proportionate sampling methods stratified by gender and age, researchers collected a total of 1,559 responses. The fans were then categorized into two segments according to the size and location of the stadiums for the games they attended. This study suggests that the stadium size and location, which demonstrates valid correspondence to both spectator motivation and behavior, can generate different market segments. Further, it is suggested that different marketing and promotional strategies might be more successful in these different markets. For example, the current study suggests that supporters clubs may be more useful when attracting spectators to the small stadiums, while a newcomer-oriented strategy may work best for the spectators in large stadiums. Finally, this study explored the potential application of the strategies suggested for the J. League for sport spectators in other situations.