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The Journal of SPORT

Abstract

Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972 (Title IX), enacted to protect individuals from discrimination based on gender in educational programs, is enforced by the Office for Civil Rights, In regard to collegiate sport, the enactment of Title IX has resulted in increased opportunities; however, sport organizations frequently fail to meet compliance with proportionality. The purpose of this study is to examine the compliance of Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) conference schools with the proportionality prong of the Title IX test. Results suggest that data from 2011-2012 for total athletes in all FBS conferences (M=4.59, SD=4.39) was significantly different from data in 2005 (M=9.2), N=11, t=-3.488, p=0.006. Additionally, data for unduplicated athletes (M=7.23, SD=4.63) was not significantly different from data in 2005 (M=9.2), N=11, t=-1.416, p=0.187. The actual number of Division I athletes, reflects no significant change in the proportionality gap since 2005. A positive correlation was found between female undergraduate percentage and the proportionality gap with total athletes (r= 0.760, p=0.007, α≤.05) and an even stronger positive correlation between female undergraduate percentage and the proportionality gap with unduplicated athletes (r=.0858, p=.001, α≤.05). Although changes are being made to improve gender equity within Division I, on-going consideration is needed of additional opportunities to improve gender equity in collegiate sports.