Title

Geospatial Study of Psychiatric Mental Health-Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (PMH-APRNs) in the United States

Publication Title

Psychiatric Services

Publication Date

12-2011

Document Type

Article

DOI

10.1176/appi.ps.000532011

Keywords

geospatial study, psychiatric mental health-advanced practice registered nurses (PMH-APRNs)

Disciplines

Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The objectives of this study were to identify geographic regions with shortages of psychiatric mental health-advanced practice registered nurses (PMH-APRNs), describe rural-urban differences in the distribution of PMH-APRNs, and discuss implications of the uneven geographic distribution.

METHODS:

The data source was a complete listing, provided by the American Nurses Credentialing Center, of the employment zip codes of certified PMH-APRNs during 2007 (N=10,452). Geographic information science techniques and spatial statistics were used to conduct a cluster analysis of the spatial distribution of PMH-APRNs.

RESULTS:

After adjustment for population on the basis of U.S. census reports, statistically significant clusters of counties with high and low density of PMH-APRNs, an indicator of uneven accessibility, were identified. Rural-urban differences in the distribution were also illustrated.

CONCLUSIONS:

The interdisciplinary approach, including both mapping and statistical analyses, identified shortage areas and provided the groundwork for directing future education, clinical practice, and public policy initiatives.